parent behaviour books

family environment:

Breiner, H., Ford, M. A., Gadsden, V. L., National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Supporting the Parents of Young Children, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, . . . Committee on Supporting the Parents of Young Children. (2016). In Morgan Ford, Heather Breiner and Vivian L. Gadsden (Eds.), Parenting matters: Supporting parents of children ages 0-8. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/21868

The book explore how parent and family environment impact children’s development in early ages and how Parents can help children build and refine their knowledge and skills, charting a trajectory for their health and well-being during childhood and beyond.

Psychopathology and the family:

Hudson, J. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2005). Psychopathology and the family (1st ed.). Amsterdam; San Diego, CA; Oxford; Elsevier.

Understanding the factors that place an individual at greater risk of developing psychopathology has important implications for both treatment and prevention of psychological disorders. This book illustrates the potential influence of the family, Parenting and the family environment as significant contributers to a child’s early development and adjustment.

Environmental factors:

Lewis, M., Mayes, L. C., & ProQuest (Firm). (2012). In Mayes L., Lewis M. (Eds.), The cambridge handbook of environment in human development. Cambridge;New York;: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139016827

The book is devoted to the understanding of the nature of environments in child development. Utilizing Urie Bronfenbrenner’s idea of embedded environments, this volume looks at environments from the immediate environment of the family (including fathers, siblings, grandparents and day-care personnel) to the larger environment including schools, neighborhoods, geographic regions, countries and cultures.

Parents’ Behaviour

The parent-child relationship may be a primarily important context for the development and health of children. Parents are thought to participate in behaviours that influence children’s social and emotional regulation skills, self-efficacy, self-determination, and mastery, which in turn may contribute to children’s SAD. Morris and Oosterhoff (2016) conducted a subjective study based on an observation of different families with different educational levels to identify the relationship between parents’ behavior and children’s Social Anxiety. Morris and Oosterhoff stated two main purposes for their study. The first aim was to comprehensively examine whether specific types of mothers’ and fathers’ rejecting or controlling behavior were associated with child social anxiety. The second aim was to explore whether the association among observed mothers’ and fathers’ rejecting and controlling behaviors and children’s Social Anxiety varied by the gender of the child.

Examining specific parenting behaviors that are linked with children’s internalizing symptoms may help parents further elucidate how parent-child interactions contribute to the development of child anxiety and depression. The article by Morris and Oosterhoff hypothesized that mothers’ and fathers’ specific parenting behaviors are associated with children’s Social Anxiety. Parenting styles are thought to play an important role in the development of important life skills and competencies necessary for healthy emotional adjustment and wellbeing throughout one’s life. Morris and Oosterhoff used semi-structured interviews and observed parent-child interaction tasks. This method allowed Morris and Oosterhoff to observe a diverse range of behaviors, including the possibility for supportive or critical communication between family members. The participants were a sample of 90 children who had two-parent’s family and whose fathers and mothers were biological parents. The study of Morris and Oosterhoff illustrated that mothers’ and fathers’ verbal and nonverbal control and rejection behaviors were associated with child anxiety, and these associations differed between the boys and girls. Mothers’ and fathers’ behaviors, such as rejection and control played an important role in children’s social anxiety. Identifying parents’ behavior as a risk factor for SAD in children is an opportunity to support children with SAD with effective interventions and training for both parents and children. Parents’ rejection or controlling behaviors play different roles in various family environments. As anxiety and depression are among the most common forms of psychopathology and might have developmental roots in late childhood, the findings from Morris and Oosterhoff’s article suggested that specific mothers’ and fathers’ parenting behaviors are associated with children’s social anxiety.

Family Environment

In another study conducted by Ginsburg et al. (2004), it is stated that being aware of the role of parenting and the family environment in the development and maintenance of Anxiety Disorders of children helps us to investigate the most effective strategies to support children with SAD. The purpose of the study conducted by Ginsburg et al. (2004) was to critically review the literature about how family/parenting behaviours are related to anxiety disorders in children. Ginsburg et al. (2004) illustrated that high levels of anxiety in parents has a negative effect on their own adaptive coping skills, and this anxiety may lead to specific anxiety-enhancing parenting behaviors that, in turn, increase their children’s vulnerability for SAD.

 Also, there are a number of environmental factors that likely influence both parenting and family interactions, such as unemployment, death of a loved one, lack of social support, and social isolation. Ginsburg et al. (2004) reviewed the literature that measured parents’ anxiety and the effects of parents’ behaviour on their children’s anxiety through self-report and behavioural observation methods. Ginsburg et al. (2004) suggested that parents who are anxious about themselves may be more likely to engage in parenting behaviors that increase their children’s anxiety. Also, anxious parents of children with Anxiety Disorders have strong beliefs about the nature of anxiety and its expression, the safety of the world, their child’s ability to manage and cope with anxiety, and both their roles and competence in handling anxiety. These beliefs can lead to specific parental behaviors, including promoting an anxious interpretation of events, allowing avoidance, taking over for the child, or directing the child. Consequently, children may come to view themselves and feel that their parents view them as incompetent to manage their lives. Not only parental behaviors such as control or rejection are likely to be risk factors for children with Social Anxiety, but also there are some environmental factors that might cause or worsen SAD in children.

Environmental Factors

To identify the reasons for social anxiety, considering environmental factors are significantly important in offering the most effective intervention for children based on the factors that caused SAD for them. Brook and Schmidt (2008) in their study provided a recent literature review and critique of proposed environmental risk factors for children’s SAD, focusing on environmental risk factors such as parenting and family environment and adverse life events.

The purpose of the study was to provide a recent review of risk and vulnerability factors that potentially come from the environment. Brook and Schmidt illustrated that parenting features such as over control, lack of warmth or rejection, and overprotection are known to be associated with the etiology of this disorder. Negative parental rearing practices which include practices of control, overprotection, rejection, neglect, lack of warmth or affection, anxious parenting, insensitivity, restrictiveness, social isolation, criticism, shame tactics, behavioral rigidity and concern with the opinions of others affect children’s SAD. For instance, parental over control lessens a child’s ability to explore and learn new skills independently and leads the child to be in anxiety in situations of perceived fear. Since parental rejection fosters causes an insecure attachment, it potentially leads to children’s Anxiety Disorders. Thus, early social relationships between the child and parents are essential for children’s proper emotional development.

In addition, adult with Social Anxiety recalled their parents isolating them from outside social experiences, stressing the importance of others’ opinions, and limiting family socializing both in and out of the home. Brook and Schmidt stated that another family factor that may contribute to the development of children’s anxiety disorders is attachment. Attachment refers to the type of enduring relationship that is established between children and their primary caregiver in the first year of life, so insecure attachment leads to children’s SAD in many cases. “Anxious parents are more likely to have anxious children, and mediation of this relation could be through specific parenting behaviors like over control” (Brook & Schmidt, p.131). Also, some traumatic events such as sexual and physical abuse, bullying, and parents’ divorce are considered environmental risk factors for children’s SAD which are identified as stressful life events because these events place increased pressure on the developing child and result in adverse outcomes.