interventions books

interventions:

Masia Warner, C., Colognori, D., & Lynch, C. (2018). Helping students overcome social anxiety: Skills for academic and social success (SASS). New York: Guilford Publications.

This unique book gives front-line school professionals innovative, easy-to-use tools for identifying and intervening with socially anxious students in grades 6-12.

Huberty, T. J. (2012). Interventions for anxiety disorders. (pp. 245-281). New York, NY: Springer New York. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-3110-7_10

Although many types of models and approaches exist, this book will focus on those approaches that have shown evidence of effectiveness. Cognitive–behavioural, behavioural, and pharmacotherapy methods have been found to show likely efficacy in treating children and adolescents with anxiety disorders.

Self-determined learning model of intervention:

Wehmeyer, M. L. (2003). Theory in self-determination: Foundations for educational practice. Springfield, Ill: C.C. Thomas

The book is based on self-determination theory in children with or without disability and mental health disorders. The authors offer interventions to promote skills like problem solving, goal setting, decision making, and self-advocacy are in place for all students.

Cognitive behaviour therapy CBT:

Seiler, L. (2008). Cool connections with cognitive behavioural therapy: Encouraging self-esteem, resilience and well-being in children and young people using CBT approaches. London;Philadelphia;: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

The book is designed to encourage resilience and self-esteem and reduce feelings of anxiety and depression. Fully photocopiable, fully illustrated and easy to use, this structured workbook is an effective tool for professionals working to improve the general wellbeing of children and young people, including psychologists, psychiatrists, counsellors, social workers, and child and adolescent mental health services, as well as professionals in residential care settings and educational professionals in child/youth services.

Mindfulness:

Didonna, F. (2009;2008;). In Didonna F. (Ed.), Clinical handbook of mindfulness (1. Aufl. ed.). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-09593-6

This book, both a review and practical guide, explores the use of mindfulness in treating psychological problems.

Brantley, J., & ebrary, I. (2007). Calming your anxious mind: How mindfulness and compassion can free you from anxiety, fear, and panic (2nd ed.). Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications

this book which is about self-help classic Calming Your Anxious Mind, offers you a powerful and profound approach to overcoming anxiety, fear, and panic

Mindfulness

Mindfulness is a type of meditation that can help decreasing stress and anxiety. mindfulness, in fact, is a practice of being at the moment and focused on your breathing, and using imagery to relax both body and mind. Social anxiety is a fear of being in a social situation and being negatively judged. Indeed, in a social situation, children with SAD might experience physical and emotional symptoms which has a negative effect on their mental and physical wellbeing such as Shaking, sweating, upset stomach, rapid heartbeats, and being stressed and anxious. Mental and emotional training. Therefore, can be useful for children with SAD. Jozsef, (2020) notes that mindfulness is in fact a sense of acceptance and paying attention to feelings without judging them or without considering right or wrong. In other words, we can increase self-esteem by the use of mindfulness practices which play an important role in supporting SAD.

In order to gain a better result in Self-determination through Cognitive Behavoiur Therapy (CBT) and Self-Determined Learning Model of intervention (SDLMI), mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR is an effective way implemented along with the interventions offered in my study both for parents at home and teachers at school. On the one hand, Through CBT, the child with SAD learns that social situations are not threatening and we should face our fear and train our minds on how to confront the fears. Therefore, as we can see in the study conducted by Goldin, et al. (2017), mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR and cognitive behaviour therapy CBT are complementary in a way that they both decrease social anxiety and increase reappraisal (changing the way of thinking) and mindfulness (mindful attitude). CBT helps SAD by disputing anxious thoughts/feelings and reappraisal success and, MBSR produces greater acceptance of anxiety and acceptance success. On the other hand, Social exposures must be arranged to provide evidence to violate the assumptions that the social situation is socially or emotionally dangerous. This is achieved by helping children think through, define, and discover what constitutes adequate social performance while having adequate practice in social situations to allow anxiety to dissipate. Elements of exposure also help to realize how their anxiety changes as their attentional focus shifts and as they persist in once avoided social situations. Hejeltness, et al. (2019) stated that MBRS can help children with SAD in a way that it increases awareness and acceptance of sensations, thoughts, and feelings, as well as greater self-acceptance and improved interpersonal relationships (p.35).  Besides, the aim of CBT and SDLMI is to increase self-esteem in children with SAD. Thompson, and Waltz, (2007;2008;) realized a significant relationship between MBRS and increased self-esteem and self-acceptance in their study as mindfulness helps to develop a less ego-centered approach to one’s experience and cultivate higher acceptance of the present moment and consequently increases self-acceptance.

There are three aspects in MBRS:

1.Intension: what is the goal for using mindfulness? Is it to decrease stress, anxiety or for emotional balance.

2. Attention: paying attention to your inner and outer experience and practice mindfulness constantly.

3. Attitude: paying attention to some attitudes such as acceptance.

There are different types of mindfulness practices:

Brain Training:

Train to brain to be focused and stay in present

Breathing:

focus on natural flow of your breath

Body Scan:

pay attention to all your body parts and connect to the body and the feelings without judgment.

Nature:

pay attention to the features of the nature such as sounds, smells, and colors

Gratitude:

appreciate all blessings we have and stay away from misfortunes we face

MBSR is an easy intervention that can be implemented both at home by parents and at school by teachers in order to have a better result. Parents and teachers, also, can benefit from mindfulness practice to cope with their own stress and anxiety. providing a safe and relaxing home environment and a fun and relaxing classroom environment motivate children to have a better function in their studies and lifelong skills such as coping skills and communication. As we can see in parents.com, practicing mindfulness increase attention and reduce stress and helps students to regulate their emotion and feel empathy. There is a science-based mindfulness curriculum that can be used at schools. visit MindUp.

Parents also can use some of the same lessons teachers use in the classroom at home such as breathing practices (blowing bubbles) or going to nature and ask the child to pay attention to nature, sounds, smells, textures, and explore nature.

Interventions for Social Anxiety Disorders

Medication: Medication

according to Fader (2018), if your anxiety stops you from normal functioning during the day, your doctor may prescribe you anti-anxiety medications. When you can’t take care of your basic needs, like going to work, or interacting with other people, medications for anxiety can be a help to everyday functioning. There are many different medications for social anxiety. However, certain ones are considered the most common medications for social anxiety. Preferred social anxiety medication options include:

  • Luvox CR
  • Paxil
  • Inderal
  • Zoloft
  • Effexor XR
  • Sertraline

Psycho-Therapy: Psycho- therapy

According to McEvoy et al. (2017), Negative, distorted self-images are the important features of social anxiety disorder, and working with imagery can make cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) more effective for those who struggle with social anxiety. CBT focuses on beliefs and attitudes that are related to a person’s behaviour and emotional problems. CBT can fine unhealthy beliefs and behaviours in people with social anxiety by applying strategies and interventions and helps developing alternative positive attitudes.

Strategies

https://education.jhu.edu/2018/03/strong-curricula-an-intervention-that-works/

Now there is a question. Why early intervention is so important?  

In a study by Nores and Barnett (2010), A total of 56 studies reporting the effects of 30 interventions (and 38 contrasts) in 23 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, Central, and South America are analyzed. they coded studies on the type of intervention (cash transfer, nutritional, educational or mixed), the sample size of the control and treatment group, the study design, the country of intervention, subpopulations of interventions, follow-ups, whether it targeted infants, pre-K age children or both, and dosage. they find children from different contexts and countries receive substantive benefits across all dimensions, and that interventions providing direct care or education to be more effective particularly in terms of cognition. The results of the study show the importance of early intervention in children.

Children with social anxiety need further supports and interventions implemented at both school and home. There are different kinds of interventions that we can use for supporting children. Based on each child’s need, the type of interventions we might implement differs.