definition of terms

Social anxiety disorders (SAD). Masia Warner et al. (2018) defined social anxiety as a permanent fear of negative appraisement by other people who may have a wrong opinion and conclusion about them, especially in unfamiliar and new situations with people they do not know. This may lead to severe distress for children.

Universal Design for Learning (UDL). Meyer (2014) stated that Universal Design for Learning means support for individual learners must be done in a meaningful way, so that different needs can be met for each student through a flexible system of learning.

Individual education plan (IEP). According to the Canadian Hearing Service (2018), an Individual Education Plan is a written form plan designed for a special education program that determines learning expectation needs, adaptations, and modifications of the curriculum to support learners to gain their educational goals.

Interventions. Intervention refers to classroom management strategies to help and support students in order to meet their needs.

Self-efficacy. Greene (2017) defined self-efficacy as self-esteem which helps individuals to learn specific things or complete particular tasks.

Parental behavior. In this study, parental behavior is referred to as the types of rejection and overprotection behaviors which can be considered as a risk factor for social anxiety in children.

Risk factor. The risk factor is defined as “conditions or circumstance which may increase the likelihood of development difficulty or disorder, in a direct or indirect way” (Empson, 2015, p. 33).

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