In another study conducted by Ginsburg et al. (2004), it is stated that being aware of the role of parenting and the family environment in the development and maintenance of Anxiety Disorders of children helps us to investigate the most effective strategies to support children with SAD. The purpose of the study conducted by Ginsburg et al. (2004) was to critically review the literature about how family/parenting behaviours are related to anxiety disorders in children. Ginsburg et al. (2004) illustrated that high levels of anxiety in parents has a negative effect on their own adaptive coping skills, and this anxiety may lead to specific anxiety-enhancing parenting behaviors that, in turn, increase their children’s vulnerability for SAD.
Also, there are a number of environmental factors that likely influence both parenting and family interactions, such as unemployment, death of a loved one, lack of social support, and social isolation. Ginsburg et al. (2004) reviewed the literature that measured parents’ anxiety and the effects of parents’ behaviour on their children’s anxiety through self-report and behavioural observation methods. Ginsburg et al. (2004) suggested that parents who are anxious about themselves may be more likely to engage in parenting behaviors that increase their children’s anxiety. Also, anxious parents of children with Anxiety Disorders have strong beliefs about the nature of anxiety and its expression, the safety of the world, their child’s ability to manage and cope with anxiety, and both their roles and competence in handling anxiety. These beliefs can lead to specific parental behaviors, including promoting an anxious interpretation of events, allowing avoidance, taking over for the child, or directing the child. Consequently, children may come to view themselves and feel that their parents view them as incompetent to manage their lives. Not only parental behaviors such as control or rejection are likely to be risk factors for children with Social Anxiety, but also there are some environmental factors that might cause or worsen SAD in children.